Stakeholder Participation and Partnership


Time Table

Guideline Questions for Panelists


Collaborative natural resource management approaches which rely on stakeholder participation and partnership between state agencies, local communities and commercial users have emerged as major policy thrust in recent years. Taking the results of Panels I and II into account, Panel 3 discusses the potentials and constraints of stakeholder participation and partnership from a theoretical, empirical and policy perspective. The contributions will help to identify under which conditions participatory approaches meet their stated objective to contribute to an efficient, equitable and environmentally sustainable use of coral reefs and associated ecosystems.

The introduction to the first section will familiarise the participants with the analytical concepts of entitlements/property rights and collective action, which are essential for the analysis of community-based and collaborative management approaches. As environmental education and awareness can be considered as a major precondition for successful user participation and involvement of stakeholders, the second contribution discusses this issue using an example of educational efforts undertaken in Zanzibar with respect to Mangroves. The third contribution uses another example from Tanzania in order to highlight the often underestimated role of the private sector as a stakeholder. The case shows that private sector initiatives can play a role not only in promoting protection but also in stimulating the policy formation processes which lead to more favourable framework conditions for conservation. The final contribution focuses on coastal communities and analyses how they can articulate their political interests and thus increase their participation in coastal management in southern Kenya.

The second section presents three examples from the Philippines, a country which is renowned for its experience with collaborative management approaches. The first contribution analyses the role of the policy framework for stakeholder involvement. The second presentation illustrates the role of NGOs for mobilising stakeholder participation. The third presentation deals with stakeholder participation in one major conservation strategy - marine protected areas (MPAs) - and elaborates key factors enhancing community-based establishment and management of MPAs, drawing on the Philippine experience. The final paper discusses different approaches to the analysis of stakeholder participation from the social sciences.

Time Table

Tuesday, 20th June




Title of Presentation

08:30 – 08:45

Kamara, Abdul

Sierra Leone

The concept of entitlements / property rights and common pool resources: an economic perspective for analysing sustainable use.

08:45 – 09:05

Shunula,  J. P.


Towards sustainable utilisation of mangroves in Zanzibar, Tanzania.

09:05 – 09:20

Riedmiller, Sibylle


* The political challenge of private sector management of marine protected areas: the Chumbe Island case, Tanzania

  9:20 – 10:00                                             DISCUSSION

10:00 – 10:30                                        COFFEE   BREAK

10:30 – 10:45

King, Anthony


* Managing without formal institutions: the role of communication networks in marine resource management.

10:45 – 11:00

Zaragoza, Ester C.


Policy framework and research initiatives for sustaining coral reef ecosystems in Philippines.

11:00 – 11:15

Romero, Filemon


WWF-Philippines strategies in promoting sustainable marine resources and use in Island communities.

11:15 – 11:30

Hermes, Rudolf

Philippines / Germany

Key sustaining factors to effective implementation of MPAs in the Philippines

11:30 – 11.45

Wittmer, Heidi


Making stakeholder participation work: The role of social science research

11:45 – 12:15                                            DISCUSSION

12:15 – 12:45                            SUMMARY AND SUGGESTIONS

12:45 – 14:00                                                LUNCH

* Title to be confirmed by author.


Guideline Questions for Panelists

·        How are property rights and entitlements distributed in the case under consideration? Which resources have to be considered as common-pool resources? What types of institutions exist for the management of common-pool resources?

§         Who has access to which resources? What formal and informal regulations exist? How is the creation, modification and enforcement of formal and informal rules organised?

§         What are the legal framework conditions at the community, regional and national levels which influence resource management? Is there a site specific legislation for the presented case?

·        Who are the actors, stakeholders or interest groups (local communities, commercial users, researchers, development agencies, practitioners, state agencies) in the case under consideration?

§         What are the interests of the primary resource users, what is their level of organisation and their ability to articulate and pursue their interests within the political-administrative system? Which conflicts of interests and power relations exist among the local communities?

§         Which role(s) do NGOs (national, international), development projects on the one hand and government agencies on the other hand play in the process of establishing and enforcing resource management regimes?

§         What are the prospects of consensus building between government, private investors, NGOs and local communities?

§         Which sources of conflicts or complementarity between the actions and objectives of different user groups or stakeholders can be observed in the process of establishing participatory management regimes (e.g. communication breakdown, confidence building measures, problem of assurance to benefit stream, etc.)?

§         Which role do formal and informal political and administrative institutions, and social networks play in enhancing stakeholder participation?

·        Which mechanisms and incentives are created for sustainable use and protection? What are the socio-economic implications of the management regime in the case under consideration?

·        Which success factors, best practices, design principles, and lessons learned can be derived from the reported cases? To which extent can these insights be applied to other regions / countries?

·        What kind of inputs/results from other disciplines would enhance your work?

·        What kind of inputs/results can you provide for other disciplines?