!! New Article (February 2021) !!
'Critical review on the future of non-biodegradable plastic and on the removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere',
in German: "Zu viel Plastik auf der Erde, zu viel Kohlendioxid in der Atmosphäre: Goodbye schöne und lebenswerte Welt".

!! The new bacterial family Gottschalkiaceae fam. nov. was proposed: Int.J. Syst. Ecol. Microbiol. 67: 2711-2719 (2017) !!

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2019 2017 2015 2012 2011 2009

Education and Academic Positions:

1959 Diploma (Chemistry), Humboldt-University Berlin, Germany
1963    Dr. rer. nat. (Microbiology), Georg-August-University Göttingen, Germany
1964-1966    Postdoctoral Fellow with Prof. H. A. Barker at the University of California, Berkeley (USA)
1970-2003 Prof. of Microbiology, Georg-August-University Göttingen, Germany
1972/73  Visiting Professor at the Department of Bacteriology of the University of California, Davis (USA)
1975/76  Rector of the Georg-August-University Göttingen, Germany
1978/79  Visiting Professor at the Department of Biochemistry of the University of California, Berkeley (USA)
1998-2000 President of the Academy of Sciences, Göttingen and President of ALLEA (All European Academies)
2003-2007 President of the Union of the German Academies of Sciences and Humanities
2003-today Prof. of Genome Research, Georg-August-University Göttingen, Germany



Member of the Göttingen Academy of Sciences


Philip-Morris-Award for Technologies of the Future (together with A. Steinbüchel and H.G. Schlegel)


Honorary member of the Israel Society for Microbiology


Winogradsky Medal of the Russian Society for Microbiology


Member of the Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher (Leopoldina)


Honorary Doctoral Degree of the Slovac Academy of Sciences


Bundesverdienstkreuz 1. Klasse des Verdienstordens der Bundesrepublik Deutschland


Emil-von-Behring-Preis (together with W. Goebel)


IBN Award of the "Industrial Biotechnology North" Association


Fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology


Honorary Member of the Vereinigung für Allgemeine und Angewandte Mikrobiologie (VAAM)


Honorary Doctoral Degree of the University of Rostock

Major Research Interests:

With the foundation of Göttingen Genomics Laboratory and the GenoMik Network Göttingen research interests have shifted. In a broad sense it still is bacterial metabolism but the basis for looking at the physiology and biochemistry of a certain bacterial species is now genomics. A number of microbial genomes have been sequenced and the sequences have been analyzed applying the necessary bioinformatic tools in order to learn about the number of ORFs present and the possible function of the genes. Genomes which have been analyzed in detail by members of the Göttingen Genomics Laboratory and in cooperation with partners of the GenoMik Network Göttingen as well as other colleagues can be looked at under Göttingen Genomics Laboratory.

Publications (in 2003 - today):



Gottschalk, G. (2019) Leben in kochendem Wasser und andere Mikrobengeschichten, Wiley-VCH Verlag, 194 pages (→ more information)




Gottschalk, G. (2017) Plötzlich Krebs - Erfahrungen eines Patienten und Mikrobiologen, Selbstverlag (Amazon Distribution GmbH), 85 Seiten (→ more information)


Poehlein A, Yutin N, Daniel R, Galperin MY (2017) Proposal for the reclassification of obligately purine-fermenting bacteria Clostridium acidurici (Barker 1938) and Clostridium purinilyticum (Dürre et al. 1981) as Gottschalkia acidurici gen. nov. comb. nov. and Gottschalkia purinilytica comb. nov. and of Eubacterium angustum (Beuscher and Andreesen 1985) as Andreesenia angusta gen. nov. comb. nov. in the family Gottschalkiaceae fam. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 67:2711-2719.


Gottschalk G (2016) Mikrobiologie im Wandel. In: Nova Acta Leopoldina NF, Supplementum 32:11-22.

Poehlein A, Schlien K, Chowdhury NP, Gottschalk G, Buckel W, Daniel R (2016) Complete genome sequence of the amino acid-fermenting Clostridium propionicum X2 (DSM 1682). Genome Announc 4:e00294-16.



Gottschalk, G. (2015) Welt der Bakterien, Archaeen und Viren: Ein einführendes Lehrbuch der Mikrobiologie, Wiley-VCH Verlag, 422 pages (→ more information)


Huja S, Oren Y, Trost E, Brzuszkiewicz E, Biran D, Blom J, Goesmann A, Gottschalk G, Hacker J, Ron EZ, Dobrindt U (2015) Genomic avenue to avian colisepticemia. mBio 6:e01681-14.

Poehlein A, Bengelsdorf FR, Schiel-Bengelsdorf B, Gottschalk G, Daniel R, Dürre P (2015) Complete genome sequence of Rnf- and cytochrome-containing autotrophic acetogen Clostridium aceticum DSM 1496. Genome Announc 3:e00786-15.

Poehlein A, Cebulla M, Ilg MM, Bengelsdorf FR, Schiel-Bengelsdorf B, Whited G, Andreesen JR, Gottschalk G, Daniel R, Dürre P (2015) The complete genome sequence of Clostridium aceticum: a missing link between Rnf- and Cytochrome-containing autotrophic acetogens. mBio 6:e01168-15.


Weise T, Thürmer A, Brady S, Kai M, Daniel R, Gottschalk G, Piechulla B (2014) VOC emission of various Serratia species and isolates and genome analysis of Serratia plymuthica 4Rx13. FEMS Microbiol Lett 352:42-53.


Poehlein A, Gottschalk G, Daniel R (2013) First insights into the genome of the Gram-negative, endospore-forming organism Sporomusa ovata strain H1 DSM 2662. Genome Announcements 1(5):e00734-13.

Poehlein A, Hartwich K, Krabben P, Ehrenreich A, Liebl W, Dürre P, Gottschalk G, Daniel R (2013) Complete genome sequence of the solvent producer Clostridium saccharobutylicum NCP262 (DSM 13864). Genome Announc 1:e00997-13.



Gottschalk, G. (2012) Bakterien rüsten auf: EHEC & MRSA, Wiley-VCH Verlag, 266 pages (→ more information)


Oehler D., Poehlein A., Leimbach A., Müller N., Daniel R., Gottschalk G., Schink B. (2012) Genome-guided analysis of physiological and morphological traits of the fermentative acetate oxidizer Thermacetogenium phaeum. BMC Genomics 13:723

Poehlein A., Schmidt S., Kaster A.-C., Goenrich M., Vollmers J., Thürmer A., Bertsch J., Schuchmann K., Voigt B., Hecker M., Daniel R., Thauer R.K., Gottschalk G., Müller V. (2012) An ancient pathway combining carbon dioxide fixation with the generation and utilization of a sodium ion gradient for ATP synthesis. PLoS One 7(3):e33439.

Sass P, Berscheid A, Jansen A, Oedenkoven M, Szekat C, Strittmatter A, Gottschalk G, Bierbaum G (2012) Genome sequence of Staphylococcus aureus VC40, a vancomycin- and daptomycin-resistant strain, to study the genetics of development of resistance to currently applied last-resort antibiotics. J Bacteriol 194(8):2107-2108.



Gottschalk, G. (2011) Discover the World of Microbes: Bacteria, Archaea, and Viruses, Wiley-VCH Verlag, 400 pages (→ more information)


Bletz S., Schuldes J., Brzuszkiewicz E., Daniel R., Gottschalk G., Karch H., Mellmann A. (2011) Evolutionary events in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O26:H11. International Journal of Medical Microbiology 301(Supplement 47):115.

Brzuszkiewicz E., Thürmer A., Schuldes J., Leimbach A., Liesegang H., Meyer F.D., Boelter J., Petersen H., Gottschalk G., Daniel R. (2011) Genome sequence analyses of two isolates from the recent Escherichia coli outbreak in Germany reveal the emergence of a new pathotype: Entero-Aggregative-Haemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EAHEC). Arch Microbiol 193(12):883-891

Brzuszkiewicz E., Weiner J., Wollherr A., Thürmer A., Hüpeden J., Lomholt H.B., Kilian M., Gottschalk G., Daniel R., Mollenkopf H.J., Meyer T.F., Brüggemann H. (2011) Comparative genomics and transcriptomics of Propionibacterium acnes. PLoS One 6(6):e21581

Fekete P.Z., Brzuszkiewicz E., Blum-Oehler G., Olasz F., Szabo M., Gottschalk G., Hacker J., Nagy B. (2011) DNA sequence analysis of the composite plasmid pTC conferring virulence and antimicrobial resistance for porcine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Int J Med Microbiol 302(1):4-9

Gounder K., Brzuszkiewicz E., Liesegang H., Wolherr A., Daniel R., Gottschalk G., Reva O., Kumwenda B., Srivastava M., Bricio C., Berenguer J., van Heerden E., Litthauer D. (2011) Sequence of the hyperplastic genome of the naturally competent Thermus scotoductus SA-01. BMC Genomics 12(1):577

Kaster A.K., Goenrich M., Seedorf H., Liesegang H., Wollherr A., Gottschalk G., Thauer R.K. (2011) More than 200 genes required for methane formation from H(2) and CO(2) and energy conservation are present in Methanothermobacter marburgensis and Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus. Archaea 2011973848

Rechnitzer H., Brzuszkiewicz E., Strittmatter A., Liesegang H., Lysnyansky I., Daniel R., Gottschalk G., Rottem S. (2011) Genomic features and insights into the biology of Mycoplasma fermentans. Microbiology 157(Pt 3):760-773

Volland S., Rachinger M., Strittmatter A., Daniel R., Gottschalk G., Meyer O. (2011) Complete genome sequences of the chemolithoautotrophic Oligotropha carboxidovorans strains OM4 and OM5. J Bacteriol 193(18):5043


Klee S. R., Brzuszkiewicz E. B., Nattermann H., Brüggemann H., Dupke S., Wollherr A., Franz T., Pauli G., Appel B., Liebl W., Couacy-Hymann E., Boesch C., Meyer F. D., Leendertz F. H., Ellerbrok H., Gottschalk G., Grunow R., Liesegang H. (2010) The genome of a Bacillus isolate causing anthrax in chimpanzees combines chromosomal properties of B. cereus with B. anthracis virulence plasmids. PLoS One 5(7):e10986.

Köpke M., Held C., Hujer S., Liesegang H., Wiezer A., Wollherr A., Ehrenreich A., Liebl W., Gottschalk G., Dürre P. (2010) Clostridium ljungdahlii represents a microbial production platform based on syngas. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 107(29):13087-13092.

Leimbach A., Brzuszkiewicz E., Thürmer A., Daniel R., Gottschalk G., Dobrindt U. (2010) Elucidation of the complete genome sequence of Escherichia coli acute bovine mastitis isolate 1303: implications for host-pathogen interactions. Reproduction in Domestic Animals 45 (Supplement 1):29.

Liesegang H., Kaster A. K., Wiezer A., Goenrich M., Wollherr A., Seedorf H., Gottschalk G., Thauer R. K. (2010) Complete Genome Sequence of Methanothermobacter marburgensis, a methanoarchaeon model organism. J. Bacteriol. 192(21): 5850-5851.

Zdziarski, J., Brzuszkiewicz, E., Wullt, B., Liesegang, H., Biran, D., Voigt, B., Grönberg-Hernandez, J., Ragnarsdottir, B., Hecker, M., Ron, E. Z., Daniel, R., Gottschalk, G., Hacker, J., Svanborg, C., Dobrindt, U. (2010) Host imprints on bacterial genomes—rapid, divergent evolution in individual patients. PLoS Pathog. 6(8), e1001078.



Gottschalk, G. (2009) Welt der Bakterien. Die unsichtbaren Beherrscher unseres Planeten, Wiley-Blackwell, Weinheim (Germany), 266 pages (→ more information)


Brüggemann, H., Gottschalk, G., eds. (2009) Clostridia. Molecular Biology in the Post-genomic Era. Caister Academic Press, Norfolk (UK), 230 pages

Ducka, P., Eckhard, U., Schönauer, E., Kofler, S., Gottschalk, G., Brandstetter, H., Nüss, D. (2009) A universal strategy for high-yield production of soluble and functional clostridial collagenases in E. coli. App. Microbiol. Biotechnol. Mar 31. (Epub ahead of print).

Ferguson, T., Soares, J. A., Lienard, T., Gottschalk, G., Krzycki, J. A. (2009) RamA, a protein required for reductive activation of corrinoid-dependent methylamine methyltransferase reactions in methanogenic archaea. J. Biol. Chem. 284(4):2285-2295.

Schmeisser, C., Liesegang, H., Krysciak, D., Bakkou, N., Le Quere, A., Wollherr, A., Heinemeyer, I., Morgenstern, B., Pommerening-Roser, A., Flores, M., Palacios, R., Brenner, S., Gottschalk, G., Schmitz, R. A., Broughton, W. J., Perret, X., Strittmatter, A. W., Streit, W. R. (2009) Rhizobium sp. NGR234 possesses a remarkable number of secretion systems. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. Apr 17 (Epub ahaed of print).

Strittmatter, A. W., Liesegang, H., Rabus, R., Decker, I., Amann, J., Andres, S., Henne, A., Fricke, W. F., Martinez-Arias, R., Bartels, D., Goesmann, A., Krause, L., Pühler, A., Klenk, H. P., Richter, M., Schüler, M., Glöckner, F. O., Meyerdierks, A., Gottschalk, G., Amann, R. (2009) Genome sequence of Desulfobacterium autotrophicum HRM2, a marine sulfate reducer oxidizing organic carbon completely to carbon dioxide. Environ. Microbiol. 11:1038-1055.

Voigt, B., Antelmann, H., Albrecht, D., Ehrenreich, A., Maurer, K. H., Evers, S., Gottschalk, G., van Dijl, J. M., Schweder, T., Hecker, M. (2009) Cell physiology and protein secretion of Bacillus licheniformis compared to Bacillus subtilis. J. Mol. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 16(1-2):53-68.


Brüggemann, H., Gottschalk, G. (2008) Comparative genomics of clostridia: link between the ecological niche and cell surface properties. Ann. N Y Acad. Sci. 1125:73-81.

Seedorf, H., Fricke, W. F., Veith, B., Brüggemann, H., Liesegang, H., Strittmatter, A., Miethke, M., Buckel, W., Hinderberger, J., Li, F., Hagemeier, C., Thauer, R. K., Gottschalk, G. (2008) The genome of Clostridium kluyveri, a strict anaerobe with unique metabolic features. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 105(6): 2128-2133.


Chen, X. H., Koumoutsi, A., Scholz, R., Eisenreich, A., Schneider, K., Schneider, I., Morgenstern, B., Voss, B., Hess, W. R., Reva, O., Junge, H., Voigt, B., Jungblut, P. R., Vater, J., Süssmuth, R., Liesegang, H., Strittmatter, A., Gottschalk, G., Borriss, R. (2007) Comparative analysis of the complete genome sequence of the plant growth promoting Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42. Nat. Biotechnol. 25(9):1007-1014

Li, F., Hagemeier, C. H., Seedorf, H., Gottschalk, G., Thauer, R. K. (2007) Re-citrate synthase from Clostridium kluyveri is phylogenetically related to homocitrate synthase and isopropylmalate synthase rather than to Si-citrate synthase. J. Bacteriol. 189(11):4299-4304

Mahapatra, A., Srinivasan, G., Richter, K. B., Meyer, A., Lienard, T., Zhang, J. K., Zhao, G., Kang, P. T., Chan, M., Gottschalk, G., Metcalf, W. W., Krzycki, J. A. (2007) Class I and class II lysyl-tRNA synthetase mutants and the genetic encoding of pyrrolysine in Methanosarcina spp. Mol. Microbiol. 64(5):1306-1318

Martin-Cuadrado, A. B., Lopez-Garcia, P., Alba, J. C., Moreira, D., Monticelli, L., Strittmatter, A., Gottschalk, G., Rodriguez-Valera, F. (2007) Metagenomics of the deep Mediterranean, a warm bathypelagic habitat. PLoS ONE 2(9):e914

Parschat, K., Overhage, J., Strittmatter, A. W., Henne, A., Gottschalk, G., Fetzner, S. (2007) Complete nucleotide sequence of the 113-kilobase linear catabolic plasmid pAL1 of Arthrobacter nitroguajacolicus Ru61a and transcriptional analysis of genes involved in quinaldine degradation. J. Bacteriol. 189(10):3855-3867

Pflueger, K., Ehrenreich, A., Salmon, K., Gunsalus, R. P., Deppenmeier, U., Gottschalk, G., Müller, V. (2007) Identification of genes involved in salt adaptation in the archaeon Methanosarcina mazei Go1 using genome-wide gene expression profiling. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 277(1):79-89


Brzuszkiewicz, E., Brüggemann, H., Liesegang, H., Emmerth, M., Olschlager, T., Nagy, G., Albermann, K., Wagner, C., Buchrieser, C., Emody, L., Gottschalk, G., Hacker, J., Dobrindt, U. (2006) How to become a uropathogen: Comparative genomic analysis of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli strains. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 103(34):12879-12884.

Chen, X. H., Vater, J., Piel, J., Franke, P., Scholz, R., Schneider, K., Koumoutsi, A., Hitzeroth, G., Grammel, N., Strittmatter, A. W., Gottschalk, G., Sussmuth, R. D., Borriss, R. (2006) Structural and functional characterization of three polyketide synthase gene clusters in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB 42. J. Bacteriol. 188(11):4024-4036.

Ehrenreich, A., Gottschalk, G., Brüggemann, H. (2006) Genomics of pathogenic clostridia and bacilli. Pathogenomics: Genome analysis of pathogenic microbes. J. Hacker, U. Dobrindt. (eds.) Weinheim, Wiley-VCH Verlag:257-280.

Fricke, W. F., Seedorf, H., Henne, A., Krüer, M., Liesegang, H., Hedderich, R., Gottschalk, G., Thauer, R. K. (2006) The genome sequence of Methanosphaera stadtmanae reveals why this human intestinal archaeon is restricted to methanol and H2 for methane formation and ATP synthesis. J. Bacteriol. 188(2):642-658.

Hochhut, B., Wilde, C., Balling, G., Middendorf, B., Dobrindt, U., Brzuszkiewicz, E., Gottschalk, G., Carniel, E., Hacker, J. (2006) Role of pathogenicity island-associated integrases in the genome plasticity of uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain 536. Mol. Microbiol. 61(3):584-595 ().

Hoi, L. T., Voigt, B., Jürgen, B., Ehrenreich, A., Gottschalk, G., Evers, S., Feesche, J., Maurer, K. H., Hecker, M., Schweder, T. (2006) The phosphate-starvation response of Bacillus licheniformis. Proteomics 6(12):3582-3601.

Nougayrede, J. P., Homburg, S., Taieb, F., Boury, M., Brzuszkiewicz, E., Gottschalk, G., Buchrieser, C., Hacker, J., Dobrindt, U., Oswald, E. (2006) Escherichia coli induces DNA double-strand breaks in eukaryotic cells. Science 313(5788):848-851.

Pohlmann, A., Fricke, W. F., Reinecke, F., Kusian, B., Liesegang, H., Cramm, R., Eitinger, T., Ewering, C., Pötter, M., Schwartz, E., Strittmatter, A., Voss, I., Gottschalk, G., Steinbüchel, A., Friedrich, B., Bowien, B. (2006). Genome sequence of the bioplastic-producing "Knallgas" bacterium Ralstonia eutropha H16. Nat. Biotechnol. 24(10):1257-1262.

Voigt, B., Schweder, T., Sibbald, M. J., Ehrenreich, A., Albrecht, D., Bernhardt, J., Feesche, J., Maurer, K.-H., Gottschalk, G., van Dijl, J. M., Hecker, M. (2006) The extracellular proteome of Bacillus licheniformis grown in different media and under different nutrient starvation conditions. Proteomics 6(1):268-281.


Hovey, R., Lentes, S., Ehrenreich, A., Salmon, K., Saba, K., Gottschalk, G., Gunsalus, R. P., Deppenmeier, U. (2005) DNA microarray analysis of Methanosarcina mazei Gö1 reveals adaptation to different methanogenic substrates. Mol. Genet. Genomics 273(3):225-239.

Prust, C., Hoffmeister, M., Liesegang, H., Wiezer, A., Fricke, W. F., Ehrenreich, A., Gottschalk, G., Deppenmeier, U. (2005) Complete genome sequence of the acetic acid bacterium Gluconobacter oxydans. Nat. Biotechnol. 23(2):195-200.

Schuster, S. C., Gottschalk, G. (2005) Microbial genomics in its second decade. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 8(5):561-563.


Brüggemann, S., Bauer, R., Raffestin, S., Gottschalk, G. (2004) Characterization of a heme oxygenase of Clostridium tetani and its possible role in oxygen tolerance. Arch. Microbiol. 182:259-263.

Brüggemann, H., Henne, A., Hoster, F., Liesegang, H., Wiezer, A., Strittmatter, A., Hujer, S., Dürre, P., Gottschalk, G. (2004) The complete genome sequence of Propionibacterium acnes, a commensal of human skin. Science 305(5684):671-673.

Brüggemann, H., Gottschalk, G. (2004) Insights in metabolism and toxin production from the complete genome sequence of Clostridium tetani. Anaerobe 10:53-68.

Fütterer, O., Angelov, A., Liesegang, H., Gottschalk, G., Schleper, C., Schepers, B., Dock, C., Antranikian, G., Liebl, W. (2004) Genome sequence of Picrophilus torridus and its implications for life around pH 0. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(24):9091-9096.

Grozdanov, L., Raasch, C., Schulze, J., Sonnenborn, U., Gottschalk, G., Hacker, J., Dobrindt, U. (2004) Analysis of the genome structure of the nonpathogenic probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917. J. Bacteriol. 186(16):5432-5441.

Hacker, J., Hochhut, B., Middendorf, B., Schneider, G., Buchrieser, C., Gottschalk, G., Dobrindt, U. (2004) Pathogenomics of mobile genetic elements of toxigenic bacteria. Int. J. Med. Microbiol. 293(7-8):453-461.

Henne, A., Brüggemann, H., Raasch, C., Wiezer, A., Hartsch, T., Liesegang, H., Johann, A., Lienard, T., Gohl, O., Martinez-Arias, R., Jacobi, C., Starkuviene, V., Schlenczeck, S., Dencker, S., Huber, R., Klenk, H. P., Kramer, W., Merkl, R., Gottschalk, G., Fritz, H. J. (2004) The genome sequence of the extreme thermophile Thermus thermophilus. Nature Biotechnol. 22(5):547-553.

Schneider, G., Dobrindt, U., Brüggemann, H., Nagy, G., Janke, B., Blum-Oehler, G., Buchrieser, C., Gottschalk, G., Emody, L., Hacker, J. (2004) The pathogenicity island-associated K15 capsule determinant exhibits a novel genetic structure and correlates with virulence in uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain 536. Infect. Immun. 72(10):5993-6001.

Veith, B., Herzberg, C., Steckel, S., Feesche, J., Maurer, K. H., Ehrenreich, P., Bäumer, S., Henne, A., Liesegang, H., Merkl, R., Ehrenreich, A., Gottschalk, G. (2004) The complete genome sequence of Bacillus licheniformis DSM13, an organism with great industrial potential. J. Mol. Microbiol. Biotechnol. (free access).

Voigt, B., Schweder, T., Becher, D., Ehrenreich, A., Gottschalk, G., Feesche, J., Maurer, K. H., Hecker, M. (2004) A proteomic view of cell physiology of Bacillus licheniformis. Proteomics 4(5):1465-1490.


Brüggemann, H., Bäumer, S., Fricke, W. F., Wiezer, A., Liesegang, H., Decker, I., Herzberg, C., Martinez-Arias, R., Merkl, R., Henne, A., Gottschalk, G. (2003) The genome sequence of Clostridium tetani, the causative agent of tetanus disease. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(3):1316-1321.

Dobrindt, U., Agerer, F., Michaelis, K., Janka, A., Buchrieser, C., Samuelson, M., Svanborg, C., Gottschalk, G., Karch, H., Hacker, J. (2003) Analysis of genome plasticity in pathogenic and commensal Escherichia coli isolates by use of DNA arrays. J. Bacteriol. 185(6):1831-1840.

Fuhrmann, S., Ferner, M., Jeffke, T., Henne, A., Gottschalk, G., Meyer, O. (2003) Complete nucleotide sequence of the circular megaplasmid pHCG3 of Oligotropha carboxidovorans: function in the chemolithoautotrophic utilization of CO, H2 and CO2. Gene 322:67-75.

Klunker, D., Haas, B., Hirtreiter, A., Figueiredo, L., Naylor, D. J., Pfeifer, G., Muller, V., Deppenmeier, U., Gottschalk, G., Hartl, F. U., Hayer-Hartl, M. (2003) Coexistence of group I and group II chaperonins in the archaeon Methanosarcina mazei. J. Biol. Chem. 278(35):33256-33267.

Knietsch, A., Bowien, S., Whited, G., Gottschalk, G., Daniel, R. (2003) Identification and characterization of coenzyme B12-dependent glycerol dehydratase- and diol dehydratase-encoding genes from metagenomic DNA libraries derived from enrichment cultures. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69(6):3048-3060.

Pfluger, K., Baumann, S., Gottschalk, G., Lin, W., Santos, H., Müller, V. (2003) Lysine-2,3-aminomutase and beta-lysine acetyltransferase genes of methanogenic archaea are salt induced and are essential for the biosynthesis of Nepsilon-acetyl-beta-lysine and growth at high salinity. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69(10):6047-6055.

Schwartz, E., Henne, A., Cramm, R., Eitinger, T., Friedrich, B., Gottschalk, G. (2003) Complete nucleotide sequence of pHG1: a Ralstonia eutropha H16 megaplasmid encoding key enzymes of H2-based lithoautotrophy and anaerobiosis. J. Mol. Biol. 332(2):369-383.

Stecker, C., Johann, A., Herzberg, C., Averhoff, B., Gottschalk, G. (2003) Complete nucleotide sequence and genetic organization of the 210-kilobase linear plasmid of Rhodococcus erythropolis BD2. J. Bacteriol. 185(17):5269-5274.

Selected Publications (until 2002):

Schlegel, H. G., Gottschalk, G., Von Bartha, R. (1961) Formation and utilization of poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid by Knallgas bacteria (Hydrogenomonas). Nature 191:463-465.

Eggerer, H., Buckel, W., Lenz, H., Wunderwald, P., Gottschalk, G., Cornforth, J. W., Donninger, C., Mallaby, R., Redmond, J. W. (1970) Stereochemistry of enzymic citrate synthesis and cleavage. Nature 226(245):517-519.

Hippe, H., Caspari, D., Fiebig, K., Gottschalk, G. (1979) Utilization of trimethylamine and other N-methyl compounds for growth and methane formation by Methanosarcina barkeri. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 76(1):494-498.

Bahl, H., Andersch, W., Gottschalk, G. (1982) Continuous production of acetone and butanol by Clostridium acetobutylicum in a two-stage phosphate limited chemostat. Eur. J. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 15:201-205.

Blaut, M., Gottschalk, G. (1984) Coupling of ATP synthesis and methane formation from methanol and molecular hydrogen in Methanosarcina barkeri. Eur. J. Biochem. 141(1):217-222.

Gottschalk, G. (1985) Bacterial Metabolism. Springer-Verlag, New York, Heidelberg, Berlin.

Müller, V., Blaut, M., Gottschalk, G. (1988) The transmembrane electrochemical gradient of Na+ as driving force for methanol oxidation in Methanosarcina barkeri. Eur. J. Biochem. 172(3):601-606.

Deppenmeier, U., Blaut, M., Mahlmann, A., Gottschalk, G. (1990) Reduced coenzyme F420: heterodisulfide oxidoreductase, a proton- translocating redox system in methanogenic bacteria. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 87(23):9449-9453.

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