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The 2003 Corruption Perceptions Index

Explanatory notes

CPI 2003 Score relates to perceptions of the degree of corruption as seen by business people, academics and risk analysts, and ranges between 10 (highly clean) and 0 (highly corrupt).

Surveys Used refers to the number of surveys that assessed a country's performance. A total of 17 surveys were used from 13 independent institutions, and at least three surveys were required for a country to be included in the CPI.

Standard Deviation indicates differences in the values of the sources. As indicated by colors, values below 0.5 indicate agreement, values between 0.5 and 0.9 indicate some agreement, while values equal or larger than 1 indicate disagreement.

High-Low Range provides the highest and lowest values of the different sources.

Number Institutions refers to the number of independent institutions that assessed a country's performance. Because some institutions provided more than one survey, this amount must be smaller than that number of surveys used.

90 percent confidence range provides a range of possible values of the CPI score. This reflects how a country's score may vary, depending on measurement precision. With 5 percent probability the score is above this range and with another 5 percent it is below. This interval, particularly when only three sources are available, should only be regarded as a rough guide.

Country rank Country CPI 2003 score Number of Surveys used Standard deviation High-low range Number of Independent Institutions 90 % confidence range
1 Finland 9.7 8 0.3 9.2 - 10.0 4 9.5 - 9.9
2 Iceland 9.6 7 0.3 9.2 - 10.0 3 9.4 - 9.7
3 Denmark 9.5 9 0.4 8.8 - 9.9 5 9.3 - 9.7
New Zealand 9.5 8 0.2 9.2 - 9.6 4 9.4 - 9.6
5 Singapore 9.4 12 0.1 9.2 - 9.5 9 9.3 - 9.4
6 Sweden 9.3 11 0.2 8.8 - 9.6 7 9.2 - 9.4
7 Netherlands 8.9 9 0.3 8.5 - 9.3 5 8.7 - 9.1
8 Australia 8.8 12 0.9 6.7 - 9.5 7 8.3 - 9.1
Norway 8.8 8 0.5 8.0 - 9.3 4 8.5 - 9.1
Switzerland 8.8 9 0.8 6.9 - 9.4 5 8.3 - 9.1
11 Canada 8.7 12 0.9 6.5 - 9.4 8 8.2 - 9.1
Luxembourg 8.7 6 0.4 8.0 - 9.2 3 8.4 - 8.9
United Kingdom 8.7 13 0.5 7.8 - 9.2 9 8.5 - 8.9
14 Austria 8 9 0.7 7.3 - 9.3 5 7.7 - 8.4
Hong Kong 8 11 1.1 5.6 - 9.3 8 7.4 - 8.5
16 Germany 7.7 11 1.2 4.9 - 9.2 7 7.1 - 8.2
17 Belgium 7.6 9 0.9 6.6 - 9.2 5 7.1 - 8.1
18 Ireland 7.5 9 0.7 6.5 - 8.8 5 7.1 - 7.9
USA 7.5 13 1.2 4.9 - 9.2 9 6.9 - 8.0
20 Chile 7.4 12 0.9 5.6 - 8.8 8 6.9 - 7.7
21 Israel 7 10 1.2 4.7 - 8.1 6 6.3 - 7.6
Japan 7 13 1.1 5.5 - 8.8 9 6.5 - 7.4
23 France 6.9 12 1.1 4.8 - 9.0 8 6.3 - 7.4
Spain 6.9 11 0.8 5.2 - 7.8 7 6.5 - 7.2
25 Portugal 6.6 9 1.2 4.9 - 8.1 5 5.9 - 7.2
26 Oman 6.3 4 0.9 5.5 - 7.3 4 5.8 - 7.0
27 Bahrain 6.1 3 1.1 5.5 - 7.4 3 5.5 - 6.8
Cyprus 6.1 3 1.6 4.7 - 7.8 3 4.7 - 7.2
29 Slovenia 5.9 12 1.2 4.7 - 8.8 8 5.4 - 6.6
30 Botswana 5.7 6 0.9 4.7 - 7.3 5 5.2 - 6.3
Taiwan 5.7 13 1.0 3.6 - 7.8 9 5.3 - 6.2
32 Qatar 5.6 3 0.1 5.5 - 5.7 3 5.5 - 5.6
33 Estonia 5.5 12 0.6 4.7 - 6.6 8 5.3 - 5.8
Uruguay 5.5 7 1.1 4.1 - 7.4 5 4.9 - 6.2
35 Italy 5.3 11 1.1 3.3 - 7.3 7 4.7 - 5.8
Kuwait 5.3 4 1.7 3.3 - 7.4 4 3.8 - 6.3
37 Malaysia 5.2 13 1.1 3.6 - 8.0 9 4.8 - 5.8
United Arab Emirates 5.2 3 0.5 4.6 - 5.6 3 4.6 - 5.5
39 Tunisia 4.9 6 0.7 3.6 - 5.6 5 4.4 - 5.3
40 Hungary 4.8 13 0.6 4.0 - 5.6 9 4.5 - 5.1
41 Lithuania 4.7 10 1.6 3.0 - 7.7 8 4.0 - 5.6
Namibia 4.7 6 1.3 3.6 - 6.6 5 4.0 - 5.6
43 Cuba 4.6 3 1.0 3.6 - 5.5 3 3.6 - 4.9
Jordan 4.6 7 1.1 3.6 - 6.5 5 4.0 - 5.3
Trinidad and Tobago 4.6 6 1.3 3.4 - 6.9 4 3.9 - 5.5
46 Belize 4.5 3 0.9 3.6 - 5.5 3 3.6 - 5.1
Saudi Arabia 4.5 4 2.0 2.8 - 7.4 4 3.2 - 5.9
48 Mauritius 4.4 5 0.7 3.6 - 5.5 3 4.0 - 4.9
South Africa 4.4 12 0.6 3.6 - 5.5 8 4.1 - 4.7
50 Costa Rica 4.3 8 0.7 3.5 - 5.5 6 4.0 - 4.7
Greece 4.3 9 0.8 3.7 - 5.6 5 3.9 - 4.8
South Korea 4.3 12 1.0 2.0 - 5.6 9 3.8 - 4.8
53 Belarus 4.2 5 1.8 2.0 - 5.8 5 2.8 - 5.3
54 Brazil 3.9 12 0.5 3.3 - 4.7 8 3.7 - 4.1
Bulgaria 3.9 10 0.9 2.8 - 5.7 8 3.5 - 4.4
Czech Republic 3.9 12 0.9 2.6 - 5.6 8 3.5 - 4.3
57 Jamaica 3.8 5 0.4 3.3 - 4.3 3 3.5 - 4.1
Latvia 3.8 7 0.4 3.4 - 4.7 5 3.6 - 4.1
59 Colombia 3.7 11 0.5 2.7 - 4.4 7 3.4 - 3.9
Croatia 3.7 8 0.6 2.6 - 4.7 7 3.3 - 4.0
El Salvador 3.7 7 1.5 2.0 - 6.3 5 2.8 - 4.7
Peru 3.7 9 0.6 2.7 - 4.9 7 3.4 - 4.0
Slovakia 3.7 11 0.7 2.9 - 4.7 7 3.4 - 4.0
64 Mexico 3.6 12 0.6 2.4 - 4.9 8 3.4 - 3.9
Poland 3.6 14 1.1 2.4 - 5.6 10 3.2 - 4.2
66 China 3.4 13 1.0 2.0 - 5.5 9 3.0 - 3.9
Panama 3.4 7 0.8 2.7 - 5.0 5 3.0 - 4.0
Sri Lanka 3.4 7 0.7 2.4 - 4.4 5 3.0 - 3.8
Syria 3.4 4 1.3 2.0 - 5.0 4 2.4 - 4.2
70 Bosnia and Herzegovina 3.3 6 0.7 2.2 - 3.9 6 2.8 - 3.6
Dominican Republic 3.3 6 0.4 2.7 - 3.8 4 3.0 - 3.5
Egypt 3.3 9 1.3 1.8 - 5.3 8 2.7 - 4.0
Ghana 3.3 6 0.9 2.7 - 5.0 6 2.9 - 4.0
Morocco 3.3 5 1.3 2.4 - 5.5 3 2.5 - 4.3
Thailand 3.3 13 0.9 1.4 - 4.4 9 2.8 - 3.6
76 Senegal 3.2 6 1.2 2.2 - 5.5 6 2.6 - 4.1
77 Turkey 3.1 14 0.9 1.8 - 5.4 10 2.8 - 3.5
78 Armenia 3 5 0.8 2.2 - 4.1 5 2.4 - 3.6
Iran 3 4 1.0 1.5 - 3.6 4 1.9 - 3.5
Lebanon 3 4 0.8 2.1 - 3.6 4 2.3 - 3.3
Mali 3 3 1.8 1.4 - 5.0 3 1.4 - 4.2
Palestine 3 3 1.2 2.0 - 4.3 3 2.0 - 3.8
83 India 2.8 14 0.4 2.1 - 3.6 10 2.6 - 2.9
Malawi 2.8 4 1.2 2.0 - 4.4 4 2.0 - 3.7
Romania 2.8 12 1.0 1.6 - 5.0 10 2.4 - 3.3
86 Mozambique 2.7 5 0.7 2.0 - 3.6 5 2.2 - 3.2
Russia 2.7 16 0.8 1.4 - 4.9 12 2.4 - 3.0
88 Algeria 2.6 4 0.5 2.0 - 3.0 4 2.2 - 2.9
Madagascar 2.6 3 1.8 1.2 - 4.7 3 1.2 - 3.7
Nicaragua 2.6 7 0.5 2.0 - 3.3 5 2.3 - 2.9
Yemen 2.6 4 0.7 2.0 - 3.4 4 2.1 - 3.1
92 Albania 2.5 5 0.6 1.9 - 3.2 5 2.1 - 3.0
Argentina 2.5 12 0.5 1.6 - 3.2 8 2.2 - 2.7
Ethiopia 2.5 5 0.8 1.5 - 3.6 5 2.0 - 3.0
Gambia 2.5 4 0.9 1.5 - 3.6 4 1.7 - 3.1
Pakistan 2.5 7 0.9 1.5 - 3.9 7 2.0 - 3.0
Philippines 2.5 12 0.5 1.6 - 3.6 8 2.2 - 2.7
Tanzania 2.5 6 0.6 2.0 - 3.3 6 2.1 - 2.8
Zambia 2.5 5 0.6 2.0 - 3.3 5 2.1 - 2.9
100 Guatemala 2.4 8 0.6 1.5 - 3.4 6 2.1 - 2.7
Kazakhstan 2.4 7 0.9 1.6 - 3.8 7 1.9 - 3.0
Moldova 2.4 5 0.8 1.6 - 3.6 5 1.9 - 3.0
Uzbekistan 2.4 6 0.5 2.0 - 3.3 6 2.2 - 2.8
Venezuela 2.4 12 0.5 1.4 - 3.1 8 2.1 - 2.6
Vietnam 2.4 8 0.8 1.4 - 3.6 6 1.9 - 2.8
106 Bolivia 2.3 6 0.4 1.9 - 2.9 4 2.0 - 2.5
Honduras 2.3 7 0.6 1.4 - 3.3 5 2.0 - 2.7
Macedonia 2.3 5 0.3 2.0 - 2.7 5 2.1 - 2.5
Serbia and Montenegro 2.3 5 0.5 2.0 - 3.2 5 2.0 - 2.7
Sudan 2.3 4 0.3 2.0 - 2.7 4 2.0 - 2.5
Ukraine 2.3 10 0.6 1.6 - 3.8 8 2.0 - 2.7
Zimbabwe 2.3 7 0.3 2.0 - 2.7 5 2.1 - 2.4
113 Congo Republic of the 2.2 3 0.5 2.0 - 2.8 3 2.0 - 2.8
Ecuador 2.2 8 0.3 1.8 - 2.6 6 2.0 - 2.3
Iraq 2.2 3 1.1 1.2 - 3.4 3 1.2 - 2.9
Sierra Leone 2.2 3 0.5 2.0 - 2.8 3 2.0 - 2.8
Uganda 2.2 6 0.7 1.8 - 3.5 6 1.9 - 2.8
118 Cote d'Ivoire 2.1 5 0.5 1.5 - 2.7 5 1.8 - 2.4
Kyrgyzstan 2.1 5 0.4 1.6 - 2.7 5 1.9 - 2.4
Libya 2.1 3 0.5 1.7 - 2.7 3 1.7 - 2.5
Papua New Guinea 2.1 3 0.6 1.5 - 2.7 3 1.5 - 2.5
122 Indonesia 1.9 13 0.5 0.7 - 2.9 9 1.7 - 2.2
Kenya 1.9 7 0.3 1.5 - 2.4 7 1.7 - 2.0
124 Angola 1.8 3 0.3 1.4 - 2.0 3 1.4 - 1.9
Azerbaijan 1.8 7 0.3 1.4 - 2.3 7 1.6 - 2.0
Cameroon 1.8 5 0.2 1.4 - 2.0 5 1.6 - 1.9
Georgia 1.8 6 0.7 0.9 - 2.8 6 1.4 - 2.3
Tajikistan 1.8 3 0.3 1.5 - 2.0 3 1.7 - 2.0
129 Myanmar 1.6 3 0.3 1.4 - 2.0 3 1.4 - 1.8
Paraguay 1.6 6 0.3 1.2 - 2.0 4 1.4 - 1.8
131 Haiti 1.5 5 0.6 0.7 - 2.3 4 1.1 - 1.9
132 Nigeria 1.4 9 0.4 0.9 - 2.0 7 1.2 - 1.6
133 Bangladesh 1.3 8 0.7 0.3 - 2.2 6 0.9 - 1.7